The coffee plant
The coffee plant belongs to the family Rubiaceae, genus Coffea. Several species belong to it and amongst them are the "Arabica" and "Canefora" better known as "Robusta". These two species are of particular importance. Fundamentally, the two species differ in antagonistic terms of aroma, taste and essence. Of the two species, the more popular is the Arabic. Consequently, three-quarters of world production comes from this crop. It has been able to provide, through rigorous methods of extraction, an aromatic beverage with a quantity of caffeine around 1, 1 to 1.7%; compared to 2 to 4.5% of the quote antagonist.

Coffee is grown in the tropical belt of Equator. Among the producing countries that comprise this segment, we find Brazil with about 25 million bags. It is here where Arabica quality coffee is principally cultivated. Typically, three years pass until a coffee plant is able to produce fruit. After that, the plants life will last about 40 years.

The flowering of a coffee plant is closely related to the phenomenon of rain. In fact, this process takes place the same time as the rainfall throughout the year. In relation to the rain, multiple and near blooms entail a parallel of heterogeneity of the fruiting. Therefore, on the same branch we can find flowers, unripe fruits, some perfectly ripe and others rotten. The different stages of maturation influence the farmers on the type of picking that can be done. We will discuss two methods: "picking" and "stripping. " Picking" is a more expensive method that requires manual and selected collection of red and ripe "cherries". This method offers a high quality final product.

The other method of collection is the "stripping", which consists of ripping all the fruit from a twig, thus decreasing the selection of each fruit and lowering the crop quality.

The extraction of the seed from the fruit follows two methods known as "dry" or "wet". Dry treatment is chosen if the harvest comes from a "stripped" crop. "Wet" treatment is used if the fruit comes from a "picked" crop. In the latter case, the "cherries" are dried naturally via the sun. When the skin and pulp are dry they are passed through a machine which removes the outer skin (peel, pulp and parchment). This process is known as "peeling". Conversely, freeing the beans while they are still green that are covered by the silver film thus creates a natural coffee.

In the "wet" method, the freshly harvested fruits undergo various phases in which the layers that cover the seeds are removed. The fruits subsequently undergo various processes of selection and cleaning that are done through collection tanks. The tanks in fact favor the fruit's fermentation. Through further washing, the grains that are not quite ripe are eliminated. The final selection is then laid out to dry under the sun. Finally, once dried the beans are stored in jute bags (with a real ID card per game) and are ready to be marketed.

fioritura

flowers

frutti

fruits

Stripping

Picking